However, specifying caps or quotas may impose an arbitrary limit on the number of external Ministers that would not necessarily represent or accommodate the specific needs of the government at the time. Retrieved from ” https: The following will discuss the nature of accountability in government, and individual and collective responsibility with regard to the effect they have on relationships between ministers and the department chief executives. However, the constitution allows a minister to dissent by expressing an objection which is entered into the minutes. As a result, they may exercise any of the functions of Scottish Ministers and may participate in parliamentary proceedings, but cannot vote. Re-defining Judicial Roles’ [] Public Law Cutting Corners’, above n

Otherwise, no State Parliament. The solidarity of the cabinet is consistently challenged by the opposition in an attempt to create contradictions between cabinet ministers. This debate also featured in the Australian constitutional conventions. Its inner workings are set out in the Ministerial Code. This model would allow external ministerial appointments within a framework of responsible government. Further, if vacancies started to be ‘manufacture[d] … to accommodate [a] new entrant’, this would have serious and negative implications for representative government.

Over time, the presence of Ministers in Parliament has come to be conflated with responsible government.

It is important to note that individual responsibility is not a function of government born from legislation but from convention Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Following the Carr appointment, the issue warrants more detailed consideration in the Australian context.

This did not cause an over politicised public service as feared by those who claimed that the appointment and removal of chief executives would be highly influenced by political motivation Mulgan, There is often an ambiguity between ministers being responsible for their department and yet not being at blame for situations that demand accountability.

research paper 04/82 the collective responsibility of ministers

This relationship has a looped effect as the minister is expected to adjust policy from the advice given by the chief executive. Its Nature and Probable Effects: Hacker then can be held responsible for his department but minidters to blame. The consequence will be that a new government will be formed or parliament will be dissolved and a general election will be called.


research paper 04/82 the collective responsibility of ministers

Naturally these are principally its own members, but they need not be exclusively so. Cabinet collective responsibilityalso known as collective ministerial responsibility[1] is a constitutional convention in Parliamentary systems that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them. Hearings are conducted by the relevant departmental Select Committee in the House of Commons and culminate in a report either endorsing or expressing reservations about the appointment.

The Labour government took the option of employing outside consultants in order to rectify the uncooperative public service Mulgan, Solidarity within the cabinet can strengthen the prime minister’s party and accelerate policy decisions and interests of that party.

This is especially pertinent in the Australian Capital Territory, which has a Legislative Assembly of 17 members and no upper house. Department of the Senate, xvii.

(PDF) Accountability and Collective Responsibility | Sean Manning –

While this could be institutionalised through constitutional reform via an Act of Parliament in the States or an Act of Federal Parliament in the Territoriesit could equally be adopted without legal change in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia, where Ministers are not expressly ministdrs to be members ministees Parliament. A parliamentary system that uses cabinet collective responsibility is more likely to avoid contradictions and disagreements between cabinet members of the executive branch.

Hawker collective described Rann’s appointments as a way of ‘dealing creatively and constitutionally’ with a lack of talent in Parliament. However, it is less clear whether this necessarily entails that Ministers are elected to Parliament.

Its inner workings are set out in the Ministerial Code. Our focus is upon the extent to which Australia’s constitutional system can accommodate unelected members of a Commonwealth, State or Territory executive.

This political neutrality is not expected to unrealistically cause public servants to be blind or un-sympathetic to the political options. While collectjve is not strictly necessary for the model to be included in a constitution, doing so will increase accountability and transparency in the appointment process.

Cabinet collective responsibility

Furthermore, there was the new position of ministers outside of cabinet that had the ability to publically voice opinions opposite to that of the cabinet on pre agreed on topics. Rhodes, Wanna and Weller offer this description of the principle of cabinet solidarity in Westminster systems of parliamentary democracy: Minisstersde Crespigny was involved in a company which was reportedly seeking to establish a nuclear power plant in South Australia.


First, it is not uncommon for successful politicians to come to politics in their later years, gaining necessary skills and experiences while no longer ‘young’.

If Hawker’s responsobility were adopted, six external Ministers could be appointed in a ministry with 30 members the size of the current Federal ministry. This is a concept that has become clouded in proportional apper such as New Zealand with the introduction of ministers outside of Cabinet as well as minority coalitions White, David Cameron suspended the cabinet collective responsibility doctrine for the EU referendum held on 23 Junefollowing the precedent set by Harold Wilson in The solidarity of the cabinet is consistently challenged by the opposition in an attempt to create contradictions between cabinet ministers.

research paper 04/82 the collective responsibility of ministers

The relationship between Hacker and Humphrey highlights the importance of ministers in balancing the needs and policy wishes of the department via Humphrey with the collective responsibility 04/8 cabinet and policy decisions. We analyse this question from the perspective of the principle of responsible government and the text of Australia’s various constitutional documents. Even at the federal level, despite the provisions of s 64, it is possible to appoint external Ministers via a Senate casual vacancy, as occurred with Carr’s appointment.

Otherwise, no State Parliament. We also propose that the number of external Ministers be capped to ensure that they do not compromise Australia’s representative system of government.

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